An Outline of Romans

Romans 1:1-32--Outline

By Daniel Thompson

Introduction - 1:1-15

Theme of Romans -- Righteouness of God Revealed in the Gospel of Christ

Romans 1:16-17

A. Wrath of God Revealed against ungodliness / unrighteousness,

Proof for the need of God’s antidote - the Gospel, 1:18-32

1. The Suppression of truth explains ungodliness/unrighteousness, vv18b-23 a. Suppression, in that God has manifest Himself to man perceivably, v19, And the nature of that suppression (i.e. the unseen has made Himself seen/understood, in His universal works, His power/wisdom), v20a b. Man is thus, even without special revelation (e.g. Word), without excuse in the sphere of belief/faith/love/obedience, v20b c. Thus, although all was clear to man, he believed/loved himself rather than the Living God, v21a d. Thus, man's heart/affections became dead, vv21b-22 e. And, in the end, worshipped both himself and creation rather than God, v23

2. God's wrath manifest in delivering man to his desires for ungodliness and unrighteousness, vv24-32 a. 1st of 3-fold repetition of God delivering man to his ungodliness/unrighteousness, vv24-25 b. 2nd of 3-fold repetition of God delivering man to his ungodliness/unrighteousness, vv26-27 c. 3rd of 3-fold repetition of God delivering man to his ungodliness/unrighteousness, vv28-31 d. Gentile Man's final unrighteousness/ungodliness, v32

B. The Nature of God’s Righteous Judgment Detailed, requiring God’s antidote – the Gospel, 2:1-16

1. The “αναπολογητος” man – the man without an 'answer'/'apology' to His Judge and Creator, 2:1-5 a. No apology – you will be condemned from your own judgment, v1 b. No apology – Absolute Truth is the foundation of one's condemnation, vv2-3 (cf. Mt 7:1ff) c. No apology – God's grace/patience (in truth) naturally leads to piety, repentance, meekness, poverty of soul, and mourning for such unrighteousness, v4 d. No apology – the opposite of v4, a hard heart, and its attendant works – v5

2. God rewards to All Man according to Works – 2:6-16 a. God's judgment according to righteousness/works, vv6-9 i. Gives to everymen according to his actions, v6 ii. To patient seekers of righteousness, eternal life, v7 iii. To the disobedient - wrath, and tribulation, vv8-9a b. God's judgment without regard of Jew/Greek – to all working the Good; Glory and Honor, for with God there is no partiality, vv9b11 c. For to work lawlessness IS unrighteousness, for it is the Doers of the Law, not the Hearers, who stand unrighteous, vv12-13 d. For the ones who have not the law yet do that law display righteousness as opposed to those who have the law and show their unrighteousness by disobedience, vv14-15 e. Which every man will give account based on my (Paul's) Gospel –the everlasting Gospel of Righteousness, v16[i.e. the Gospel standard which is outside ethnicity (Gen 3:15f; chp 9; 12:3; 15:6 cf. Rom 16:20; Gal 3:8; Rom 4:5,17…]) – {two reasons}… i. The Gospel Law (1 Cor 9:19ff) is outside ethnicity and the Jew (for could the Gentile be sinning, not offering according to the Jewish Law)? ii. Whereas the Law is NOT ETERNAL (Rom 5:13-14), the Gospel IS both ways (Eternity Past, 1 Pet 1:19-20; Rev 13:8: Eternity Future, Heb 13:20-21)

C. The Gospel Need for Jews, 2:17 - 3:18

  1. Supposed Jewish advantages – vv17-20
  2. Sins against law/hypocrisy of the Jew's hubris – vv21-24
  3. Diluted advantage in circumcision apart from holiness/true sanctification – vv25-29
  4. True advantages of the Jew, yet a failure – 3:1-8

D. Conclusion - All Stand under Sin, its power and penalty - 3:9-20

  1. Statement of Truth/Fact– v9
  2. Proof from God's Word – vv10-18
  3. Summery – vv19-20

E. God’s Righteousness in Christ provided – 3:21-31

  1. The Law and Prophets proclaim this Righteousness – vv21-22
  2. Summery Statement…why? – v23
  3. The Heart of the Heart of the Gospel/Romans – vv24-26
  4. Implications – vv27-31

F. OT Witness to the Gospel/Grace vs. Works (cf. 3:21,31 – The Law is witness to Grace) – 4:1-25

  1. Abraham's Witness to the Gospel imputation – vv1-5
  2. David and imputed Righteousness (gospel) – vv6-8
  3. Circumcision and the Gospel Righteousness– vv9-12
  4. True heirs of blessedness from our blessed God – vv13-14
  5. Inability of Law to secure blessedness/heirship – vv15-16
  6. Abraham, Sarah and Isaac as proof – vv17-22
  7. Conclusion – vv23-25

G. Fruits of Justification (gospel) - 5:1-21

1. Fruit #1 – Absolutely Assured Forgiveness, Grace and Peace – 5:1-11 a. Results for a Justified Man – vv1-5 b. Absolute Assurance of Grace – vv6-10 c. The Assurance of forgiveness/etc is Now – v11

2. Fruit #2 – Absolutely Assured of Grace's Triumph over Sin – 5:12-21 a. Sin and Death Reigned thru Adam – v12 i. Prior to law, Proof of v12, in particular 12c - Sin's reign over man from Adam– v13-14 ii. Christ incomparably greater than Adam/type (re:clarification of Adam/Christ type of v14c): vv15-17 b. Resumption/Completion of v12 ('just as'/'even so') – vv18-19 c. Law, Sin, Adam, and the Assured Triumph of Christ – vv20-21

H. Objections to the Paul’s Gospel: 6:1 – 8:4

1. Grace – Objections, 6:1 – 6:23 a. Objection#1 – Shall we continue in sin because of the Triumph of “the more sin, the more grace and power of Christ (from v21)? – 6:1-14 i. Retort/Denial – v2a ii. Why? (Summery answer) – v2b iii. Why? (Extended answer) : vv3-10 iv. Application, Practical and Doctrinal – vv11-14 b. Objection#2 – Shall we continue in Sin because we are not under Law but rather Grace? (from v14) – 6:15-23 i. Retort/Denial – v15b ii. Why? – because “under grace” always means obedience unto righteousness, vv16-21 iii. “under grace” always unfolds with: way[1]->truth[2]->life[3] (comp: Mt 7:14: gate[1]->way[2]->life[3], vv22-23

2. Law – Objections, 7:1 – 8:4 a. Deliverance from the dominion of Law (from 6:14), 7:1-6 b. Question#1 – Does this mean the law is sin?(from v5.1[sin<->law]): 7:7-12 c. Question#2 – Does this mean the law causes death?(from v5.2[law<->death]): 7:13-25 i. Retort, v13a ii. Summery answer (sin the cause), v13b iii. Absolution of Law from the cause of death, vv13-16 iv. The true cause of Death – Sin, vv17-25 v. Conclusion re: Law and Grace, 8:1-4

I. Life in the Spirit (i.e. “Under Grace” (con’t from v7:6), 8:5-39

  1. Gospel Justification means life in holiness by the Spirit, vv5-14a
  2. Life in the Spirit means 'sonship,' vv14b-17a
  3. Life in the Spirit/sonship/heirship means suffering a. Why we shall prevail, vv17b-30
     i. Our suffering cannot compare to the coming glory, vv17b-25
     ii. Spirit's intercession enables us to endure, vv26-27
     iii. All things work for good, vv28-30

J. Final Perseverance of the Saints of the Gospel, 8:31-39

  1. God is for us, then none can effectually be against us, vv31b-34 a. God's work for us, vv32-33 b. Christ's work for us, v34
  2. Therefore, no possible separation for any cause - even ourselves, vv35-37
  3. Final, Assured Triumph of the Saints, vv38-39

K. The Gospel and Israel

1. The Gospel, Israel, and His Past Promises a. Introduction, vv1-5 b. Question, Has God's Promises to Israel Failed (re: 9:4c)?: v6a c. Retort/Answer: Not all flesh/Israel are Spirit/Israel, vv6b-13 i. Proof#1-Abraham/Sarah/Isaac, vv7-9 ii. Proof#2-Isaac/Rebecca/Jacob, v10 iii. Summery truth/Proof, vv11-13 d. Question/Objection#1, Is God then unrighteous?: v14a-18 i. Retort/Denial, v14b ii. Proof#1, OT/Moses (from Ex 33:19), v15 iii. Extrapolation, v16 iv. Proof#2, Pharaoh (from Ex 9:15), v17 v. Extrapolation, v18 e. Question/Objection#2, How can God fault man being Sovereign?, v19a-23 i. Who is man to answer God?: v20a ii. Who is the created to answer the Creator?: vv20b-21 iii. The Creator's true sovereign authority, vv22-23 f. God's Gospel to Israel is also to the Gentiles, v24a-33 i. Gentile OT call/result, vv25-26 ii. Israel OT call/result, vv26-33

2. Israel, the Gospel, and the Present, vv10:1-21 a. Paul's desire for Israel, v1 b. Israel's desire for works-righteousness and the Pauline rebuttal, vv2-4 c. Mosaic-OT proof of Paul's understanding re:10:4, 10:5-11 i. Proof from Moses, vv5-8 1. Quote, from Lev 18:5, v5 2. Quote, from Deut 9:4; 30:11ff, vv6-8 ii. Conclusion re: Faith vs. Works, vv9-11 d. Calling on the Lord, vv12-18 e. OT/Israel Proof of evidence to Israel's present unbelief, vv19-21

3. Israel and the Future, 11:1-36 a. Question#1, Has God cast off Israel completely? : vv1-10 i. Retort, v1b ii. Proof#1, Paul's salvation, v1c iii. Conclusion#1, v2a iv. Proof#2, Elijah's remnant, vv2b-4
v. Conclusion#2, vv5-6 vi. The state of those remaining in unbelief, vv7-10 b. Question#2, Are the Israelites of vv7-10 hopeless?: 11:11-32 i. retort, v11b ii. Summery answer, v11c iii. Summery conclusion to v11 question, v12 iv. Proof#1, Paul's ministry of jealousy, vv13-14 v. Reiteration of the truth and deduction of v12: v15 vi. Deduction, Gentile and restored Jew equal, v16 vii. Proof of Deduction and practical Gentile attitude, vv17-24 viii.The Mystery of Gentile Salvation/Jewish jealousy unto their redemption, vv25-29 ix. The conclusion to v11 question as stated prior in vv13-14; vv23-24; vv25-26a; x. (e.g. Jewish unbelief->Gentiles saved->Jewish jealousy->Jewish salvation):vv30-31 xi. Summary, v32

4. Doxology, of chp.11 and chps 1-11: vv33-36

III. The Practical Application in the Life of the Redeemed – 12:1-16:27